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Recent Publications

Effect of feed-time duration on discrimination of vocalizations in a go/no-go operant paradigm
Discrimination of high- and low-threat vocalizations: An examination of referential communication in black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) mobbing calls.
Pitch chroma information is processed in addition to pitch height information with more than two pitch range categories 

Refereed Journal Publications

  1. Campbell, K.A., Hoeschele, M., Mann, D., Congdon, J.V., Scully, E.N., Mischler, S.K., Montenegro, C., Service, W.D., & Sturdy, C.B. (Accepted 6 February 2023, online 9 February 2023). Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) discriminate between naturally-ordered and scramble-ordered chick-a-dee calls and individual preference is related to rate of learning. Behavioural Processes.
  2. Sahu, P.K., Montenegro, C., Lambert, C.T., Oprea, A., Deimeke, M.J., Rennie, V., Smeltz, S.M.L, Benowicz, T.J., Patel, D., Phillmore, L.S., & Sturdy, C.B. (published 17 November 2022). Effect of feed-time duration on discrimination of vocalizations in a go/no-go operant paradigm, Behavioural Processes,
  3. Congdon, J.V., Hahn, A.H., Campbell, K.A., Scully, E.N., Mischler, S.K., Montenegro, C., Service, W.D., & Sturdy, C.B. (published August, 2022). Discrimination of high- and low-threat vocalizations: An examination of referential communication in black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) mobbing calls. Animal Behavior and Cognition. 9(3), 298-315.
  4. Wagner, B., Sturdy, C.B., Weisman, R.G., Hoeschele, M. (published 1 June 2022). Pitch chroma information is processed in addition to pitch height information with more than two pitch range categories. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics. DOI:
  5. Sahu, P.K., Campbell, K.A., Oprea, A., Phillmore, L.S. & Sturdy, C.B. (published 19 May 2022). Comparing methodologies for classification of zebra finch distance calls. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 151, 3305. DOI:
  6. Lambert, C.T., Sahu, P.K., Sturdy, C.B., & Guillette, L.M. (published 18 May 2022). Among-individual differences in auditory and physical cognitive abilities in zebra finches. Learning & Behavior. DOI:
  7. Montenegro, C., Sahu, P., & Sturdy, C.B. (2021). Individual acoustic differences in female black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillusfee-bee songs. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150(4) 3038-3046.  DOI:
  8. Montenegro, C., Service, W.D., Scully, E.N., Mischler, S.K., Benowicz, T., Fox, K.V., Sahu, P., & Sturdy, C.B. (2021). The impact of anthropogenic noise on individual identification via female song in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Scientific Reports. DOI:
  9. Congdon, J.V., Hahn, A.H., Campbell, K.A., Scully, E.N., Yip, D.A., Bayne, E.M. & Sturdy, C.B. ( 2020). Can you hear me now? The effect of signal degradation on perceived predator threat in black-capped chickadees. Animal Cognition, 24, 193-204. DOI:
  10. ​Scully, E.N., Montenegro, C., & Sturdy, C.B. (2020). Differential immediate early gene activity revealed by playback of male and female incomplete chick-a-dee calls. Behavioral Brain Research, 393, 1-5. DOI:
  11. Campbell, K.A., Hahn, A.H., Congdon, J.V., Scully, E.N., & Sturdy, C.B. (2020). Perception of sex differences in black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilluschick-a-dee calls. Animal Behavior and Cognition, 7(4), 514-530. DOI:
  12. Montenegro, C., Service, W.D., Scully, E.N., Mischler, S.K., Campbell, K.A., & Sturdy, C.B. (2020). Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) can identify individual females by their fee-bee songs. The Auk, 137, 1-10. DOI: (Invited blog post:
  13. Scully, E.N., Campbell, K.A., Congdon, J.V., & Sturdy, C.B. (2020). Discrimination of black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilluschick-a-dee calls produced across seasons. Animal Behavior and Cognition, 7(2), 247-256. DOI:
  14. Congdon, J.V., Hahn, A.H., Campbell, K.A., Scully, E.N., Yip, D.A., Bayne, E.M., & Sturdy, C.B. (accepted 15 February 2020). Acoustic discrimination of predators by black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Animal Cognition, 23, 595–611. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-020-01364-5
  15. Scully, E.N., Montoya Sanchez, J., & Sturdy, C.B. (2019). Abcam Monoclonal Egr-1 ab133695 is an effective primary antibody replacement for Santa Cruz sc-189 polyclonal Egr-1 in songbirds. Heliyon, e02938. DOI:
  16. Campbell, K.A.Thunberg, S., & Sturdy, C.B. (2019). Features of male and female-produced song in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) change between seasons. Canadian Acoustics – Acoustique canadienne, 47(3), 36-27.
  17. Congdon, J.V., Hahn, A.H.*, Filippi, P.*, Campbell, K.A.*, Hoang, J., Scully, E.N., Bowling, D.L., Reber, S.A., & Sturdy, C.B. (2019). Hear them roar: A comparison of black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) and human (Homo sapiens) perception of arousal in vocalizations across all classes of terrestrial vertebrates. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 133(4), 520–541.
  18. Sturdy, C.B. & Congdon, J.V. (2019). Sometimes a stick might just be a stick. Learning & Behavior,  47, (2), 115–116. DOI: 10.3758/s13420-019-00378-5
  19.  Campbell, K.A., Proppe, D.S., Congdon, J.V., Scully, E. N., Mischler, S. K., & Sturdy, C.B. (2018). The effects of anthropogenic noise on feeding behaviour in black-capped chickdaees (Poecile atricapillus). Behavioural Processes.
  20. Scully, E.N., Schuldhaus, B.C., Congdon, J.V., Hahn, A.H., Campbell, K.A., Wilson, D.R., & Sturdy, C.B. (2018). ZENK expression in the auditory pathway of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) as a function of D note number and duty cycle of chick-a-dee calls. Behavioural Brain Research.
  21. Sturdy, C.B., & Nicoladis, E.N. (2017). How much of language acquisition does operant conditioning explain? Frontiers in Psychology.
  22. ​Apol, C.A., Sturdy, C.B., &, Proppe, D.S. (2017). Lack of seasonal variation in habitat may have facilitated the loss of a song in the boreal chickadee. Evolutionary Ecology. DOI: 10.1007/s10682-017-9921-4
  23. ​Filippi, P., Congdon, J.V., Hoang, J., Bowling, D., Reber, S., Pasukonis, A., Hoeschele, M., Ocklenburg, S., de Boer, B., Sturdy, C.B., Newen, A. & Güntürkün, O. (2017). Humans recognize emotional arousal in vocalizations across all classes of terrestrial vertebrates: Evidence for acoustic universals. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Series B.
  24. Scully, E.N., Hahn, A.H., Campbell, K.A., McMillan, N., Condon, J.V., & Sturdy, C.B. (2017). ZENK expression following conspecific and heterospecific playback in the zebra finch auditory forebrain. Behavioral Brain Research.
  25. Mercado, E. III, Wisniewski, M.G., McIntosh, B., Guillette, L.M., Hahn, A.H., & Sturdy, C.B. (2017). Chickadee songs provide hidden clues to singers’ locations. Animal Behavior and Cognition.
  26. McMillan, N., Hahn, A.H., Campbell, K.A., Congdon, J.V., Spetch, M.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2017). Chickadees perform poorly on midsession reversal tasks without rigid temporal regularity. Animal Cognition, 20, 655-663. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-017-1088-4
  27. Hahn, A.H., Campbell, K.A., Congdon, J.V., Hoang, J., McMillan, N., Scully, E.N., Yong, J.J.H., Elie, J.E., & Sturdy, C.B. (2017). Discrimination of acoustically similar conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations by black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Animal Cognition, 20, 639-654. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-017-1087-5
  28. McMillan, N., Spetch, M.L., Sturdy, C.B., & Roberts, W.A. (2017). It’s all a matter of time: Interval timing and competition for stimulus control. Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews, 12, 83-103 DOI: 10.3819/CCBR.2017.120007
  29. Sturdy, C.B., Campbell, K.A., Congdon, J.V., Hahn, A.H., McMillan, N., & Scully, E.N. (2017). Moving from perceptual to functional categories in songbirds.​ International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 30, 1-14. DOI:
  30. Hahn, A.H., Guillette, L.M., Hoeschele, M., Otter, K.A., Ratcliffe, L.M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2017). Discrimination of male black-capped chickadee songs: Relationship between acoustic preference and performance accuracy. Animal Behaviour, 126, 107-121. DOI: 
  31. Proppe, D.S., McMillan, N., Congdon, J.V., & Sturdy, C.B. (2017). Mitigating road impacts on animals through learning principles. Animal Cognition, 20, 19–31. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-016-0989-y
  32. Guillette, L.M., Baron, D.M., Sturdy, C.B., & Spetch, M.L. (2017). Individual differences in generalization gradients and exploratory behaviour in pigeons. Behavioural Processes, 134, 54–62. DOI:
  33. Campbell, K.A., Hahn, A.H., Congdon, J.V., & Sturdy, C.B. (2016). Sex differences in black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) chick-a-dee calls. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 140, 1598–1608. DOI:
  34. Congdon, J.V., Hahn, A.H., McMillan, N., Avey, M.T., & Sturdy, C.B. (2016). Chickadee behavioural response to varying threat levels of predator and conspecific calls. International Journal of Comparative Psychology. DOI: 
  35. Hahn, A.H., Hoeschele, M., Guillette, L.M., Hoang, J., McMillan, N., Congdon, J.V., Campbell, K.A., Mennill, D.J., Otter, K.A., Grava, T., Ratcliffe, L.M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2016). Black-capped chickadees categorize songs based on features that vary geographically. Animal Behaviour, 112, 94-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.11.017
  36. McMillan, N., Sturdy, C. B., Pisklak, J. M., & Spetch, M. L. (2016). Pigeons perform poorly on midsession reversal tasks without rigid temporal regularity. Animal Cognition, 19, 855–859. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-016-0962-9
  37. McMillan, N., & Sturdy, C.B. (2015). Commentary: “A crisis in comparative psychology: Where have all the undergraduates gone?” Frontiers in Psychology. DOI: 
  38. Hahn, A.H., Guillette, L.M., Lee, D., McMillan, N., Hoang, J., & Sturdy, C.B. (2015). Experience affects immediate early gene expression in response to conspecific call notes in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Behavioural Brain Research, 287, 49–58. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.03.021
  39. Hahn, A.H., Hoang, J., McMillan, N., Campbell, K., Congdon, J., & Sturdy, C.B. (2015). Biological salience influences performance and acoustic mechanisms for the discrimination of male and female songs. Animal Behaviour, 104, 213-228. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.03.023 
  40. McMillan, N., Hahn, A.H., Spetch M.L., & Sturdy, C.B. Avian cognition. (2015). Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 6(3), 285–297. DOI: 10.1002/wcs.1346
  41. McMillan, N., Sturdy, C.B. & Spetch M.L. (2015). When is a choice not a choice? Pigeons fail to inhibit incorrect responses on a go/no-go midsession reversal task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 41, 255-265. DOI: 
  42. Avey, M.T., Bloomfield, L.L., Elie, J.E., Freeberg, T.M., Guillette, L.M., Hoeschele, M., Lee, H., Moscicki, M.K., Owens, J.L., Sturdy, C.B. (2014). ZENK activation in the nidopallium of black-capped chickadees in response to both conspecific and heterospecific calls. PLoS ONE, 9(6): e100927. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100927 
  43. Guillette, L.M., Hahn, A.H., Hoeschele, M., Przyslupski, A.-M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2014). Individual differences in learning speed, performance accuracy and exploratory behaviour in black-capped chickadees. Animal Cognition, 18(1), 165-178. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-014-0787-3
  44. Hoeschele, M., Cook, R.G., Guillette, L.M., Hahn, A.H., & Sturdy, C.B. (2014). Timbre influences chord discrimination in black-capped chickadees but not humans. To appear in Journal of Comparative Psychology, 128(4), 387-401. DOI:
  45. Weisman, R.G., Hoeschele, M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2014). A comparative analysis of auditory perception in humans and songbirds: a modular approach. Behavioural Processes, 104, 35-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2014.02.006 
  46. Zhai, Y., Dasog, M., Snitynsky, R.B., Purkait, T.K., Hahn, A.H., Sturdy, C.B., Lowary, T.L., & Veinot, J.G.C. (2014). Water-soluble photoluminescent D-mannose and L-alanine functionalized silicon nanocrystals and their application to cancer cell imaging. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2, 8427-8433. DOI: 10.1039/C4TB01161A 
  47. Proppe, D.S., Byers, K.A., Sturdy, C.B., St. Clair, C.C. (2013). Physical condition of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in relation to road disturbance. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 91(11), 842-845. DOI: 10.1139/cjz-2013-0081 
  48. Grava, T., Fairhurst, G.D., Avey, M.T., Grava, A., Bradley, J., Avis, J.L., Bortolotti, G.R., Sturdy, C.B., & Otter, K.A. (2013). Habitat quality affects early physiology and subsequent neuromotor development of juvenile black-capped chickadees. PLoS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071852
  49. Hahn, A.H., Guillette, L.M., Hoeschele, M., Mennill, D.J., Otter, K.A., Grava, T., Ratcliffe, L.M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2013). Dominance and geographic information contained within black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) song. Behaviour, 150, 1601-1622. (cover photo) DOI: 10.1163/1568539X-00003111 
  50. Hahn, A.H., Krysler, A., & Sturdy, C.B. (2013). Female song in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus): Acoustic song features that contain individual identity information and sex differences. Behavioural Processes, 98, 98-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2013.05.006
  51. Hoeschele, M., Weisman, R.G., Guillette, L.M., Hahn, A.H., & Sturdy, C.B. (2013). Chickadees fail standardized operant tests for octave equivalence. Animal Cognition, 16(4), 599-609. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-013-0597-z 
  52. Proppe, D.S., Sturdy, C.B., & St. Clair, C.C. Anthropogenic noise decreases urban songbird diversity and may contribute to homogenization. (2013). Global Change Biology, 19(4), 1075–1084. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12098
  53. Guillette, L.M., Hoeschele, M., Hahn, A.H., & Sturdy, C.B. (2012). Heterospecific discrimination of Poecile vocalizations by zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Journal of Comparative Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/a0029992 
  54. Hoeschele, M., Cook, R.G., Guillette, L.M., Hahn, A.H., & Sturdy, C.B. (2012). Auditory same/different concept learning and generalization in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). PLoS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047691
  55. Hoeschele, M., Guillette, L.M., Sturdy, C.B. (2012). Biological relevance of acoustic signal affects discrimination performance in a songbird. Animal Cognition, 15(4), 677-688. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-012-0496-8 
  56. Hoeschele, M., Weisman, R.G., & Sturdy, C.B. (2012). Pitch chroma discrimination, generalization, and transfer tests of octave equivalence in humans. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 74(8), 1742-1760. DOI: 10.3758/s13414-012-0364-2
  57. Proppe, D.S., Avey, M.T., Hoeschele, M., Moscicki, M., Farrell, T., St. Clair, C.C., & Sturdy, C.B. (2012). Black-capped chickadees sing at higher pitches with elevated anthropogenic noise, but not with decreasing canopy cover. Journal of Avian Biology, 43(4), 325–332. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2012.05640.x 
  58. Weisman, R.G., Balkwill, L.-L., Hoeschele, M., Moscicki, M.K., & Sturdy, C.B. (2012). Identifying absolute pitch possessors without using a note naming task. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 22(1), 46-54.
  59. Avey M.T., Hoeschele, M., Moscicki, M.K., Bloomfield, L.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2011). Neural correlates of threat perception: Neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned. PLoS ONE, 6(8): e23844. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023844 
  60. Avey, M.T., Rodriguez, A., & Sturdy C.B. (2011). Seasonal variation of vocal behaviour in a temperate songbird: Assessing the effects of laboratory housing on wild-caught, seasonally-breeding birds. Behavioural Processes, 88, 177-183. DOI:
  61. Guillette, L.M., Bloomfield, L.L., Batty, E.R., Dawson, M.R.W., & Sturdy, C.B. (2011). Development of a contact call in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) hand-reared in different acoustic environments. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130 (4), 2249-2256. DOI:
  62. Guillette, L.M., Reddon, A.R., Hoeschele, M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2011). Sometimes slower is better: Slow-exploring birds are more sensitive to changes in a vocal discrimination task. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278, 767-773. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2010.1669
  63. Guillette, L.M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2011). Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: Stress-induced calling exposes a songbird’s personality. Naturwissenschaften, 98,977–981. DOI: 10.1007/s00114-011-0842-8 
  64. Hoeschele, M., Cook, R.G., Guillette, L.M., Brooks, D.I., & Sturdy, C.B. (2011). Black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) and human (Homo sapiens) chord discrimination. Journal of Comparative Psychology. Advance online publication. DOI: 10.1037/a0024627
  65. Moscicki, M.K., Hoeschele, M., Bloomfield, L.L., Modanu, M., Charrier, I., & Sturdy, C.B. (2011). Note types and coding in Parid vocalizations: the chick-a-dee call of the boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129(5), 3327-3340. DOI: 
  66. Proppe, D.S., Sturdy, C.B., St. Clair, C.C. (2011). Flexibility in animal signals facilitates adaptation to rapidly changing environments. PLoS ONE 6(9): e25413. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0025413
  67. Wisniewski, M.G., Guillette, L.M., Radell, M., Sturdy, C.B., & Mercado, E. (2011). Predicting shifts in generalization gradients with perceptrons. Learning & Behavior, 40(2), 128-144. DOI: 10.3758/s13420-011-0050-6
  68. Guillette, L.M., Bailey, A.A., Reddon, A.R., Hurd, P.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2010). Capture order is repeatable in chickadees. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 23, 216-224
  69. Guillette, L.M., Bloomfield, L.L., Batty, E.R., Dawson, M.R.W., & Sturdy, C.B. (2010). Black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli) contact call contains species, sex, and individual identity features. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127(2), 1116-1123. DOI:
  70. Guillette, L.M., Farrell, T.M., Hoeschele, M., Nickerson, C.M., Dawson, M.R.W., & Sturdy, C.B. (2010). Mechanisms of call note type perception: Peak shift in a note type continuum. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 124(1), 109-115. DOI: 10.1037/a0017741 
  71. Guillette, L.M., Farrell, T.M., Hoeschele, M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2010). Acoustic mechanisms of a species-based discrimination of the chick-a-dee call in sympatric black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain chickadees (P. gambeli). Frontiers in Comparative Psychology1:229. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00229
  72. Hoeschele, M., Moscicki, M.K., Otter, K.A., van Oort, H., Fort, K., Farrell, T.M., Lee, H., Robson, S.W.J., & Sturdy, C.B. (2010). Dominance signaled in an acoustic ornament. Animal Behaviour, 79, 657–664. DOI: 
  73. Moscicki, M.K., Hoeschele, M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2010). Note types and coding in Parid vocalizations: The chick-a-dee call of the Mexican chickadee (Poecile sclateri). Acta Ornithologica, 45(2), 147-160. DOI: 10.3161/000164510X551282
  74. Proppe, D.S., Bloomfield, L.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2010). Acoustic transmission of the chick-a-dee call of the black capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus): forest structure and note function. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 88, 788-794. DOI: 10.1139/Z10-047 
  75. Weisman, R.G., Balkwill, L.-L., Hoeschele, M., Moscicki, M.K., Bloomfield, L.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2010). Absolute pitch in boreal chickadees and humans: Exceptions that test a phylogenetic rule. Learning and Motivation, 41, 156–173. Included in a Special Issue to honor Stewart H. Hulse. DOI:
  76. Weisman, R.G., Hoeschele, M., Bloomfield, L.L., Mewhort, D.J.K., Sturdy, C.B. (2010). Using network models of absolute pitch to compare frequency-range discriminations across avian species. Behavioural Processes, 84(1), 421-427. DOI: 
  77. Batty, E.R., Bloomfield, L.L., Spetch, M.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2009). Black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain chickadees’ (Poecile gambeli) use of geometric and featural information in a spatial orientation task. Animal Cognition, 12, 633-641. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-009-0222-3 
  78. Guillette, L.M., Reddon, A.R., Hurd, P.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2009). Exploration of a novel space is associated with individual differences in learning speed in black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus. Behavioural Processes, 82, 265–270. DOI:
  79. Hoeschele, M., Gammon, D.E., Moscicki, M.K., & Sturdy, C.B. (2009). Note types and coding in parid vocalizations: the chick-a-dee call of the chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufuscens). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 126(4), 2088-2099. DOI: 
  80. Proppe, D.S., & Sturdy, C.B. (2009). The effect of schedules of reinforcement on the composition of spontaneous and evoked black-capped chickadee calls. Journal of Experimental Biology, 212, 3016-3025. DOI: 10.1242/​jeb.031724
  81. Avey, M.T., Quince, A.F., & Sturdy, C.B. (2008). Seasonal and diurnal patterns of black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) vocal production. Behavioural Processes, 77(2), 149-155.  Included in Special Issue in honour of the contributions of Ronald G. Weisman, Special Issue Edited by C.B. Sturdy; This manuscript edited by J. Crystal. DOI: 
  82. Avey, M.T., Kanyo, R.A., Irwin, E.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2008). Differential effects of vocalization type, singer and listener on Zenk immediate early gene response in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Behavioral Brain Research, 188(1), 201-208. DOI:
  83. Bloomfield, L.L., Farrell, T.M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2008). Categorization and discrimination of “chick-a-dee” calls by wild-caught and hand-reared chickadees. Behavioural Processes, 77(2), 166-176. Included in Special Issue in honour of the contributions of Ronald G. Weisman, Special Issue Edited by C.B. Sturdy; This manuscript edited by J. Crystal. DOI: 
  84. Bloomfield, L.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2008). All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally. Part I: Open-ended categorization of chick-a-dee calls by sympatric and allopatric chickadees. Behavioural Processes, 77(1), 73-86. DOI:
  85. Bloomfield, L.L., Farrell, T.M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2008). All “chick-a-dee” calls are not created equally. Part II: Mechanisms for discriminations by sympatric and allopatric chickadees. Behavioural Processes, 77(1), 87-99. DOI: 
  86. Nickerson, C.M., Bloomfield, L.L., Dawson, M.R.W., Charrier, I., & Sturdy, C.B. (2007). Feature weighting in ‘chick-a-dee’ call notes of Poecile atricapillus. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122(4), 2451-2458. DOI: 
  87. Sturdy, C.B., Bloomfield, L.L., Farrell, T.M., Avey, M.T., & Weisman, R.G. (2007). Auditory category perception as a natural cognitive activity in songbirds. Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews, 2, 93-110. Retrieved from DOI:10.3819/ccbr.2008.20006
  88. Dawson, M.R.W., Bloomfield, L.L., Charrier, I., & Sturdy, C.B. (2006). Statistical classification of black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain chickadee (P. gambeli) call notes. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 120, 147-153. DOI: 10.1037/0735-7036.120.2.147 
  89. Dawson, M.R.W., Charrier, I., & Sturdy, C.B. (2006). Using an artificial neural network to classify the call notes of the black-capped chickadee call (Poecile atricapillus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 119(5), 3161-3172. DOI:
  90. Lee, T.T.-Y., Charrier, I., Bloomfield, L.L., Weisman, R.G. & Sturdy, C.B. (2006). Frequency-range discriminations and absolute pitch in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), mountain chickadees (P. gambeli), and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 120(3), 217-228. DOI: 10.1037/0735-7036.120.3.217 
  91. Nickerson, C.M., Bloomfield, L.L., Dawson, M.R.W., & Sturdy, C.B. (2006). Artificial neural network discrimination of black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) call notes. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 120(2), 1111-1117. DOI:
  92. Sturdy, C.B., & Weisman, R.G. (2006). Rationale and methodology for testing auditory cognition in songbirds. Behavioral Processes, 72, 265-272. DOI: 
  93. Bloomfield, L.L., Phillmore, L.S. Weisman, R.G., & Sturdy, C.B. (2005) Note types and coding in Parid vocalizations III: The chick-a-dee call of the Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 83, 820-833. DOI: 10.1139/z05-067 
  94. Charrier, I., Lee, T.T.-Y., Bloomfield, L.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2005). Acoustic mechanisms of note-type perception in black-capped chickadee calls. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 199(4), 371-380. DOI: 10.1037/0735-7036.119.4.371
  95. Charrier, I., & Sturdy, C.B. (2005). Call-based species recognition in black-capped chickadees. Behavioral Processes, 70, 271-281. DOI: 
  96. Gray, E.R., Bloomfield, L.L., Ferrey, A., Spetch, M.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2005). Spatial encoding in mountain chickadees: Features overshadow geometry. Biology Letters, 1, 314-317. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2005.0347
  97. Bloomfield, L.L., Charrier, I., & Sturdy, C.B. (2004). Note types and coding in Parid vocalizations II: The chick-a-dee call of the mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli) Canadian Journal of Zoology, 82, 780-793. DOI: 10.1139/z04-046 
  98. Charrier, I., Bloomfield, L.L., & Sturdy, C.B. (2004). Note types and coding in Parid vocalizations I: The chick-a-dee call of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 82,769-779. DOI: 10.1139/z04-045
  99. Weisman, R.G., Njegovan, M.G., Williams, M.T., Cohen, J.S., & Sturdy, C.B. (2004). A behavior analysis of absolute pitch: Sex, experience, and species. Behavioral Processes, 66, 289-307. DOI: 
  100. Bloomfield, L.L., Sturdy, C.B., Phillmore, L.S., & Weisman, R.G. (2003). Open-ended categorization of chick-a-dee calls by black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla).  Journal of Comparative Psychology, 117(3), 290-301. DOI: 10.1037/0735-7036.117.3.290 
  101. Phillmore, L.S., Sturdy, C.B., & Weisman, R.G. (2003). Does reduced social contact affect discrimination of distance cues and individual vocalizations? Animal Behaviour, 65, 911-922. DOI:
  102. Sturdy, C.B., Wild, J.M., & Mooney, R. (2003) Respiratory and telencephalic modulation of vocal motor neurons in the zebra finch.  Journal of Neuroscience, 23(3), 1072-1086
  103. Mooney, R., Rosen, M.J., & Sturdy, C.B. (2002).  A bird’s eye view: top down intracellular analyses of auditory selectivity for learned vocalizations. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 188, 879-895. DOI: 10.1007/s00359-002-0353-3 
  104. Phillmore, L.S., Sturdy, C.B., Turyk, M.R. & Weisman, R.G. (2002). Discrimination of individual vocalizations by black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilla). Animal Learning & Behavior, 30(1), 43-52. DOI: 10.3758/BF03192908
  105. Sturdy, C.B., Phillmore, L.S., Sartor, J. J. & Weisman, R.G. (2001). Reduced social contact causes auditory perceptual deficits in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata. Animal Behaviour, 62, 1207-1218. DOI: ​​2000
  106. Sturdy, C.B., Phillmore, L.S., & Weisman, R.G. (2000). Call-note discriminations in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 114(4), 357-364. DOI: 10.1037/0735-7036.114.4.357 
  107. Sturdy, C.B., Phillmore, L.S., Weisman, R.G. (1999). Note types, harmonic suppression, and note order in the songs of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113(2), 194–203. DOI: 10.1037/0735-7036.113.2.194
  108. Sturdy, C.B., Phillmore, L.S., Price, J. L., & Weisman, R.G. (1999). Song-note discriminations in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): Categories and pseudocategories. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113(2), 204-212. DOI: 10.1037/0735-7036.113.2.204  
  109. Weisman, R., Brownlie, L., Olthof, A., Sturdy, C., Njegovan, M., & Mewhort, D. (1999). Timing and classifying brief acoustic stimuli by songbirds and humans. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 25(2), 139-152. DOI: 10.1037/0097-7403.25.2.139
  110. Phillmore, L.S., Sturdy, C.B., Ramsay, S.M., & Weisman, R.G. (1998). Discrimination of auditory distance cues in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112 (3), 282-291. DOI: 10.1037/0735-7036.112.3.282  
  111. Weisman, R., Njegovan, M., Sturdy, C., Phillmore, L., Coyle, J., & Mewhort, D. (1998). Frequency range discriminations: special and general abilities in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112(3), 244 – 258. DOI: 10.1037/0735-7036.112.3.244
  112. Cohen, J.S., Sturdy, C., & Hicks, M. (1996). Intratrial proactive interference in rats’ serial alternation performance in the radial maze. Animal Learning and Behavior, 24(3), 300-309. DOI: 10.3758/BF03198978  

Full Papers in Refereed Conference Proceedings

  1. Wisniewski, M.G., Guillette, L.M., Radell, M.L., Sturdy, C.B., & Mercado, E., III (2011). Simulating the temporal dynamics of learning-related shifts in generalization gradients with connectionist models. In L. Carlson, C. Hölscher, & T. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.  

Refereed Book Chapters

  1. Hahn, A.H., Congdon, J.V., Campbell, K.A., Scully, E.N., McMillan, N., & Sturdy, C.B. (In press 12 December 2016). Mechanisms of communication and cognition in chickadees: Explaining nature in the lab and field. Manuscript to appear in Advances in the Study of Behaviour. DOI:  
  2. McMillan, N., Avey, M.T., Bloomfield, L.L., Guillette, L.M., Hahn, A.H., Hoeschele, M., & Sturdy, C.B. (In press 30 March 2016). Avian Vocal Perception: Bioacoustics and Perceptual Mechanisms. In C. ten Cate & S. D. Healy (Eds) Avian cognition. Cambridge University Press.
  3. Mercado III, E. & Sturdy, C.B. (2016). Classifying animal sounds with neural networks. In C. Brown & T. Riede (Eds), Research Methods in Comparative Bioacoustics. Bentham eBooks, 429-478.  
  4. Weisman, R.G., Mewhort, D.J.K., Hoeschele, M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2012). New perspectives on absolute pitch in birds and mammals. In E.A. Wasserman & T.R. Zentall (Eds), Handbook of Comparative Cognition. Oxford University Press, 67-79.
  5. Freeberg, T.M., Baker, M.C., Bloomfield, L.L., Charrier, I., Gammon, D.E., Hailman, J.P., Lee, T.T-Y, Lucas, J.R., Mennill, D.J., & Sturdy, C.B. (2007). Synopsis: Complexities in vocal communication. In K.A. Otter (Ed), Ecology and Behaviour of Chickadees and Titmice: an integrated approach. Oxford University Press, 235-240.  
  6. Sturdy, C.B., Bloomfield, L.L., Charrier, I., & Lee, T.T.-Y. (2007). Chickadee vocal production and perception: An integrative approach to understanding acoustic communication. In K.A. Otter (Ed), Ecology and Behaviour of Chickadees and Titmice: an integrated approach. Oxford University Press, 153-166.
  7. Weisman, R.G., Williams, M.T., Cohen, J.S., Njegovan, M.J., & Sturdy, C.B. (2006). The comparative psychology of absolute pitch. In E.A. Wasserman & T.R. Zentall (Eds), Comparative Cognition: Experimental Explorations of Animal Intelligence. Oxford University Press, 71-86.  

Non-refereed Publications

  1. Deimeke, M.J., & Sturdy, C.B. (7 August 2023). Animal cognition: Wild mountain chickadees follow the abstract rules, Current Biology. 33(15),  R803-R805,
  2. Guillette, L.M., and Sturdy, C.B. (2020). Unifying psychological and biological approaches to understanding animal cognition. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. DOI:
  3. Mischler, S.K., Congdon, J.V., Scully, E.N., Campbell, K.A., & Sturdy, C.B. (2017). Passerine vocal communication. To appear In J. Vonk & T. Shakelford (Eds), Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_892-1
  4. Sturdy, C.B., Spetch, M.L., & Ratcliffe, L.M. (2017). Biography: Ronald G. Weisman. In J. Vonk & T. Shakelford (Eds), Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_1931-1
  5. Sturdy, C.B. & Proppe, D.S. (2015). Hearing is believing: Birds learn fear. Learning & Behavior, 44, 205–206. DOI: 10.3758/s13420-015-0207-9  
  6. Hahn, A.H., & Sturdy, C.B (2015). Seemingly simple songs: Black-capped chickadee song revisited. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 138, 1879. DOI:
  7. Sturdy, C.B., & Spetch, M.L. (2015, March 24). LIVES LIVED: Intellectually challenging and a force of nature. Queen’s Gazette. Retrieved from  
  8. Sturdy, C.B., & Spetch, M.L. (2015). In Memory of Ronald G. Weisman (September 14 1937-January 27 2015). Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews, 10, 107. DOI: 10.3819/ccbr.2015.100005
  9. Hahn, A.H., Guillette, L.M., Hoeschele, M., Cook, R.G., & Sturdy, C.B. (2013). Categories, concepts, and calls: Auditory perceptual mechanisms and cognitive abilities across different types of birds. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 19. DOI: 10.1121/1.4799329  
  10. Mercado, E. III, Wisniewski, M.G., McIntosh, B., Guillette, L.M., & Sturdy, C.B. (2013). Reverberlocation in chickadees? Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 19. DOI: 10.1121/1.4799208
  11. Sturdy, C.B., & Zentall, T.R. (2011). Welcome Editorial. Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews, 6, 4. Retrieved from  
  12. Sturdy, C.B. (2008). Thinking outside the box: A tribute to the contributions of Ronald G. Weisman. Behavioural Processes, 77(2), 139-141. Editorial for Special Issue in honour of the contributions of Ronald G. Weisman, Special Issue Edited by C.B. Sturdy. DOI:
  13. Sturdy, C.B. (2004). Animal behaviour: A social call. Nature, 430, 414. DOI: 10.1038/430414a  
  14. Sturdy, C.B., & Mooney, R. (2000). Bird Communication: Two voices are better than one. Current Biology, 10:17:R634-R636. DOI: