Klahr AC, Dickson CT, Colbourne F
Transl Stroke Res 2014 Jul;
Seizures are a frequent complication of brain injury, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), where seizures occur in about a third of patients. Rodents are used to study pathophysiology and neuroprotective therapies after ICH, but there have been no studies assessing the occurrence of seizures in these models. Thus, we compared seizure incidence and characteristics after infusing collagenase (0.14 U), which degrades blood vessels, and autologous blood (100 μL) into the striatum of rats. Saline was infused in others as a negative control, whereas iron, a by-product of degrading erythrocytes, served as a positive control. Ipsilateral and contralateral electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was continuously monitored with telemetry probes for a week after the stroke. There were no electrographic abnormalities during baseline recordings. As expected, saline did not elicit any epileptiform activity whereas iron caused seizure activity. Seizures occurred in 66 % of the collagenase group between 10 and 36 h, their duration ranged from 5 to 90 s, and these events were mostly observed bilaterally. No such activity occurred after blood infusion despite comparable lesion sizes of 32.5 and 40.9 mm(3) in the collagenase and blood models, respectively (p = 0.222). Therefore, seizures are a common acute occurrence in the collagenase but not whole blood models of striatal ICH (p = 0.028, for incidence). These findings have potential implications for ICH studies such as for understanding model differences, helping select which model to use, and determining how seizures may affect or be affected by treatments applied after stroke.
Greenberg A, Ward-Flanagan R, Dickson CT, Treit D
Hippocampus 2014 Jun;
Although hippocampal function is typically described in terms of memory, recent evidence suggests a differentiation along its dorsal/ventral axis, with dorsal regions serving memory and ventral regions serving emotion. While long-term memory is thought to be dependent on de novo protein synthesis because it is blocked by translational inhibitors such as anisomycin (ANI), online (moment-to-moment) functions of the hippocampus (such as unconditioned emotional responding) should not be sensitive to such manipulations since they are unlikely to involve neuroplasticity. However, ANI has recently been shown to suppress neural activity which suggests 1) that protein synthesis is critical for neural function, and 2) that paradigms using ANI are confounded by its inactivating effects. We tested this idea by using a neuro-behavioral assay which compared the influence of intra-hippocampal infusions of ANI at dorsal and ventral sites on unconditioned emotional behavior of rats. We show that ANI infusions in ventral, but not dorsal, hippocampus produced a suppression of anxiety-related responses in two well-established rodent tests: the elevated plus-maze and shock-probe burying tests. These results are similar to those previously observed when ventral hippocampal activity is directly suppressed (e.g., by using sodium channel blockers). The present study offers compelling behavioral evidence for the proposal that ANI adversely affects ongoing neural function and therefore its influence is not simply limited to impairing the consolidation of long-term memories. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Viczko J, Sharma AV, Pagliardini S, Wolansky T, Dickson CT
J. Neurosci. 2014 Mar;34(11):3937-46
Previous work has demonstrated an influence of the respiratory cycle and, more specifically, rhythmic nasal inspiration for the entrainment of slow oscillations in olfactory cortex during ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. This respiratory entrainment has been suggested to occur more broadly during slow-wave states (including sleep) throughout the forebrain, in particular in the frontal and parahippocampal and hippocampal cortices. Using multisite local field potential recording methods and spectral coherence analysis in the rat, we show here that no such broad forebrain coupling takes place during slow-wave activity patterns under either ketamine-xylazine or urethane anesthesia and, furthermore, that it also does not arise during natural slow-wave sleep. Therefore, respiratory-related oscillatory neural activities are likely limited to primary olfactory structures during slow-wave forebrain states.